In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a form of assisted reproduction technology. It’s about retrieving eggs from a woman’s ovaries and fertilizing them with sperm. This fertilized egg is known as an embryo. The embryo (s) are then transferred to the uterus to continue their growth.
ICSI differs from conventional IVF in only one respect. Instead of the spontaneous penetration of sperm into the oocytes, it will be assisted and guided by the biologist to ensure fertilization. In fact, a single sperm will be injected directly using a micro-manipulator into each of the mature oocytes.
IVF is intended for couples in which one or both of the members have occasional or permanent sterility. The in vitro thus makes it possible to treat infertility in patients suffering from anomalies of the fallopian tube in women (blocked, damaged or absent fallopian tube), ovulation disorders, premature ovarian failure, uterine fibroids in the woman, sperm abnormalities in men (abnormality or reduced sperm count) or genetic disease.
The IVF process takes place in five stages:
Step 1: Stimulate egg production: the gynecologist in Tunisia prescribes fertility drugs to stimulate egg production. He performs a trans-vaginal ultrasound to monitor egg production and takes blood samples to check hormone levels.
Step 2: Recover the female gametes: the surgical procedure takes place under anesthesia. The specialist in gynecology in Tunisia uses an ultrasonic rod to guide a needle in the patient’s ovary and more precisely in a follicle containing the eggs. The needle sucks the eggs and fluid from each follicle.
Step 3: Obtain the male gametes: the husband produces a semen sample for combination with the ova.
Step 4: Fertilize male and female sex cells: the in vitro specialist Tunisia, using a team of biologists, mixes and stores the and the eggs in the laboratory for fertilization. The latter monitors the eggs to confirm that fertilization and cell division are complete, thus obtaining the embryos.
Step 5: Transfer the embryos. In general, a gynecologist in Tunisia transfers one to two embryos into the woman’s uterus three to five days after the puncture and fertilization through a catheter or a small tube inserted into the uterus.
The success rate of IVF depends on a number of factors, including the reason for the infertility, the location of the procedure, and the age of the woman. Indeed, at the age of 40, only 4 to 5% of attempts are successful. However, the IVF success rate goes back to 25% before the age of 40.